The Persian Renaissance: From the Timurids to  the Safavids

Territories even they were trying to spread Islam, they didn’t built traditional structures, rather than that they prefered taking reference from Persian tradition. The Seljuks were the one who gave importance to public spaces and funerary monument and they worked on these strucure more commanly. Their broad, iwan shaded courts and massive cupolas provided models for later nomadic conquerors.During the 13th century, Great Khan was the one who destroyed all the monuments and didn’t obey to the rules of Islamic culture. After three generations few societies sponsered large cities with gateways, palaces, formal gardens and funerary cupolas. Islamic architecture provided them to study mosques, madrassas and mausoleums. Once Timur gained a power to become a ruler, he constructed several pyramids from the skull of his vctioms to show his privagle. He prefered lving in yurt set in a park outside the city, but he also created a city palace, religius monuments and market streets. At the other end of the city, he designed his own mausoleum. It had a square courtyard with a dome over a tomb. There were also cylinderical minarets in each corner.

In Samarkand, the strucures were mostly Timur’s tombs, however there was an mathematician who sponsered the Great Observatory and symmetrically arranged madrassas around the Registan plaza at the mid point of Timur’s covered market street.

Shah Abbas started his jurney by renewing the center of Isfahan. He enlargened the Old Maydan. He also made additions to the Great Mosque. The additions done to the corners of the mosque  gave externals irregularity.

The Mughal Empire: Islam Tinged with Indian Diversity

Mughal dynasty was also influenced from the Persian Architecture. They infiltrated India, where they mixed with the strong traditions of both Hindu and Islamic precendents.In their capitals, they erected impressive fortresses, mosques, palaces, gardens and funerary complexes. They included gardens with pools to their mauseleums. Theie mauseleums also had domes and minarets. Their gardens were very beautiful, decorated with lots of fruit trees and flowers. The Tomb of Humayun also had a very beautiful garden surrounded with walls. To make it look more like a paradise, the architects ran water canals around the garden. The plan of the garden and the mausoleum had nine square grid plan which is also known as the hasht bihisht.


The Tomb of Humayad


Hamburg Spain: The Catholic Mandate for Classical Rigor

Charles V’s son has moved the capital city of Habsburg dynasty fromValladolid to Madrid. He practiced the classical style of early Roman architecture. He developed his greatest project, the moanstry San Lorenzo. He sponsered lots of palaces and gardens and he also renewed plazas and public spaces. He produced the undecarated style to Spanish architecture. Philips after Charles’ death conceived the Escorial which is a dynastic burail.  Escorial had domed church, a mauseleum, a monestry, a religious school, a palace for the king’s court, the royal apartment, a hospital, a grand plaza and three blocked office building. They used granite and the entry waas leading to a long court. The church had two bell towers. There were statues of kings David and Solomon at the entry of the church. The church had a square based plan, covered with a dome and the dome was rising on a tall drum.

The Paris of Henri: Pieces of Urban Order

 Paris in 1600s was in a horriable condition. The population was high but the substructure wasn’t developed, there was no streets. Thus, Henry’s renewal plan included rebuilding the royal Louvre, quadrupling the size of the four-square castle and ennlargening the long gallery ran to the Tuileries, and especially the walls. He also founded hospitals.

After the Plaza Royal, the Place des Vosges became the stage for the royal ceremonials and tourments. It had a square plan and the surrounding elevetions were combinations of vertical strips of stone rustication mixed with simple brick bond.

Louis XIV and Versailles: The Mirror of Absolute Rule

Cardinal Mazarin was the architect of Louis and his Roman taste has influenced many projects in Paris.The convert church of Val-de-Grace was the most Roman of the new Parisian churches. The grand volutes of the Perisian church made a graceful tarnsition from the upper level to the wider lower level. Shadow plasters and nitches framed Corinthian columns of the entry porch and the dome. Mazarin also financed a major educational enstituet called the Colleege des Quatre-Nations. It had domed church in the mausoleum.


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