Architecture History 700-200 BCE period

I have a great enthusiasm towards Classical Architecture and the new streams that has born after Classicalism. Therefore, this reading was the best. I’m going to inform you about cycle of empires in Southwest Asia and Achaemenid Persia, Classical architecture at the Acropolis and the Agora and Embles pf peace in stone in Mauryan India.

After Sargon II started powering the Southwest Asia, he commissioned a new capatel, named after his name. This gives big information about the cities politic and the regime, because we got used to the idea of naming cities after their god’s name. He wanted equity. So,  the fresh start enabled him to achieve what he wanted and, also Southwest Asians had big improvement in military equipment. The used tools fortificated them, and helped them won most of the wars. There tracks from Egypt: the orthogonal design of the city. There was bigger encloser compared with Hattusha and Ur. There were straight and long street which help to connect the entrance of the city to the center of the city. The straight condition is interesting, because I cannot remember an architectural decision example from the past. As the temples I learnt, the temple of Sargon rose above the ground level. The temples were rotated 10 degree to east, perhaps for astronomical orientation. Even there were innovations in architectural designs, setting the entries to the inner palace asymmetrically to discourage direct access was something didn’t change, they hold their tradition while they make changes. A vaulted drainage system was one other technical innovation. There were also no stair. The first structure that came to my mind is the Guggenheim. There, there is also no stairs, they make use of the sloppy condition. After the death of Sargon, his son Sennacherib came to rule the city.

When Babylon was ruled by Nebuchadnezzar, the city  was containing lots of people from different cultural background: melting pot. Because there were that much religion, there were also that much temples referring to each belief. They gave the impression of being the defenders of religions, rather than being the champions of warfare. Rebuilding walls and such approaches similar to this was also seen in architectural revolution of Babylon. The orthogonal method was also repeated. Ishtar gate is an important structural element. It was used to connect Etemenanki tower. The tower had seven levels corresponding to seven heavens. This shows the great knowledge they have about astronomy. This tower is the world’s tallest tower. The Ishtar Gate was once reconstructed, because the palace of Sargon was expanding.

I really don’t know why, but I love Classical Architecture and in this reading there was part about Greek Architecture. Greeks were the first to include open public spaces in their designs, correct me if I’m mistaken. The 8th century BCE was the period of stagnation, and this was the start of the idea of living together. The mainland of Greek also can be a melting pot, because by that time there were about 700 states and they were sharing the same land. They all had different cultures, traditions, religions and language. Colonization gave a start to debating the term of polis.

As the most powerful city in Aegean, Athens produced the most influential models of Greek Architecture and urbanism. At the eight century, as the villages at the base of the Acropolis united through synoikismos, the city spread casually outward along radial paths.

The paragraph above cited from the book shows the reason of the shift from acropolis to agora. To Greek people, using acropolis as the god’s home was more respectful. In Greek also there was no public spaces im front of temples and palaces. Rather than creating area such that one, they prefered having open public spaces in the city. The complexity of Athenian government had parallel effects on the complexity of architectural structure.  the forms were forced to a change. Skias’s form was a cylindrical tholos structure. 

Will be updated.




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